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Université de Paris I – Panthéon-Sorbonne
PHD graduate political science
THE ITALIAN MAFIAS AND THE END OF THE BIPOLAR WORLD
Relationships between politcians and mafias and criminal activities under the test of international relationships
Thesis directed by président Jacques Soppelsa
Academic defense (viva) january the 22th 2009
Mention « très honorable » by unanimity of the members of the jury :
M. le professeur Charles Zorgbibe
M. le professeur Michel Carmona
M. le professeur Simon Petermann
Professore Giuseppe Muti
Mikhail Lebedev (Михаил Лебедев)
In Italy, four mafia organisations take part in systematic criminality. They are political entities constituted to fit social and economic surroundings. They exercise sovereignty on a territory. Anchored to their “home base”, where they wield absolute power, the mafia organisations structure and perpetuate a violent and illegal system. They deal with a huge network of accomplices. They animate cultural schemes and benefit from a social consensus coming from the population.
Italian mafias are vast scientific objects. They were born with private property spreading at the beginning of the 19th century. Progressively, the underworld has grown in concomitance with the new modern Italian state born only in 1860. Over one century and a half, politicians have used the mafias as a way to administer the South of Italy.
The end of a bipolar world has swept across Italy. It has led to the fall of the political system based on mafia collusion. The first Italian Republic (1945-1992) was over. Immediately, the mafia lost the political and « military » power included in the American containment strategy which consisted in preventing any of the free world countries to fall to communism. Losing impunity and their official partner, the Sicilian mafia decided to find other ways.
Since the end of the antagonism between the two blocks, the mafia’s power has been growing stronger. Italian mafias control their territories and have a transnational dimension. They embody this movement of knowledge, money, goods and person in
which the governmental actors are less and less frequent. The Mafias participate in the global and integrated economy. They reflect this new deal and the structural and systematic phenomenon of the globalisation.
Keywords : geopolitic, Italy, mafias, State, gouvernance, control of the territory, transnational, Cold War, globalization, drug.
On the 6th of May 2008, via Regina Margherita, a street in Secondigliano district, Pasquale Salomone, 45 years old, was waiting for someone when two hired killers arrived. Then, they shot to death Pasquale Salamone. The victim was linked to the Licciardi clan. This napolitan mafia family is a very powerful one. The Licciardi mob organisation is inside a cartel namned « Alleanza di Secondigliano » (Secondigliano ‘s alliance). This criminal ssociation controls the north suburbs of Napoli. See the map above.
A citizen has been injured by a bullet during this mafia operation. But, in Italy, innocents are always specific. And naturally, there is no witness…
It is the 26th Camorra’s killing since the beginning of the year.
Eurispes, the politic, economic and social institute has just published his last report on organized crime in Italy. According to Eurispes, The ‘Ndrangheta, the calabrian mafia, has becomed the richest and the most dangerous criminal organisation for the italian state. This analysis confirmes the latest reports from the antimafia parliamentary commission and from the italian intelligence services (art. 13). Recently, the United State administration decided to include the ‘Ndrangheta into his black list considering calabrian mafia has infiltrated lots of parts of the economy in the USA.
According to Eurispes, in 2007, the calabrian mafia earned 44 thousands millions euros. It would represent 2,9% of the italian Gross National Product (GNP estimed at 1.535 thousand millions euros). The “‘Ndrangheta holding’s” annual income is as important as the GNP of Estonia (13,2 thousands millions euros) added to the slovenian one (30,4 thousands millions d’euros).
Drug trafficking is still a profitable activity with 27,24 thousands millions euros a year (62% of the total incomes). Almost each gramme of cocaïne consumed in Italy has been dealt by the mob calabrian families called “’ndrina”.